Tuesday, October 08, 2013

A Pauline Theology of Pastoral Teaching of Believers: A Provisional Outline


The following provisional outline develops Paul's theology of pastoral teaching of believers. It intentionally does not address his use of teaching for evangelistic purposes. The goal is identify the grounds, motivations, qualifications, goals, contents, and methods of Paul's teaching ministry to saints so as to provide a pattern for pastors to follow and to use in evaluating their own teaching ministry.
  
    I.       I.         Rationale & Motivation – Why do we teach?
a.       Grounds/Rationale (The logical or theological reasons)
                                        i.      God commands elders to teach (1 Tim. 4:13; 2 Tim. 2:2); command and teach these things (Παράγγελλε ταῦτα καὶ δίδασκε1 Tim. 4:11); teach and exhort these things (Ταῦτα δίδασκε καὶ παρακάλει; 1 Tim. 6:2)
                                        ii.      God gifts men to teach to equip & mature the body (Eph. 4:11-16; 1 Cor. 12:28)     
b.      Motivations (what provides motivation for teaching)
                                        i.      Love for God – fulfilling God’s ordination (1 Tim. 2:7; 2 Tim. 1:11), maintaining the fire of God’s gift (2 Tim. 1:6), pleasing God (2 Cor. 5:9)
                                        ii.      Love for others – perception of their need of salvation (1 Tim. 4:16), for their benefit (Eph. 4:15)
                                        iii.      God’s love for us exhibited in Christ (2 Cor. 5:11)
                                        iv.      To present our ‘work’ at the judgment (Col. 1:28), to be approved by God (2 Tim. 2:15), knowing we will appear before the judgment seat of Christ (2 Cor. 5:10-11)
                                        v.      Negatively: not for sordid gain (Tit. 1:11; cf. Tit. 1:7)

II.                II.      Qualifications – who is qualified to serve as a pastoral teacher?
a.       Gender – husband = male (1 Tim. 3:2); not female (1 Tim. 2:11-12)
b.      Character (1 Tim. 3:1-7; Titus 1:5-9)
c.       Skill/capacity – “able to teach” (1 Tim. 3:2; 2 Tim. 2:24); able to refute (Tit. 1:9); able to defend­­ (Phil. 1:16)
                                        i.      being a teacher is a gift of God to the church (1 Cor. 12:28; Eph. 4:11)
                                        ii.      “all are not teachers” (1 Cor. 12:29)
d.      Knowledge – minimum knowledge of basics of faith (cf. Heb. 5:12-6:1)
                                         i.      Knowledge of the law (1 Tim. 1:7)
                                        ii.      Sound doctrine (Tit. 1:9; 1 Tim. 1:9; 4:6; 6:3)
e.       Spiritual Maturity – “not a novice” = new convert (1 Tim. 3:6)
f.       Discernment – able to recognize what is contrary to sound teaching (1 Tim. 1:3-4, 9-10; 6:3; 2 Tim. 1:13; 4:3; Tit. 1:9; 2:1); the teaching of demons (1 Tim. 4:1); worldly or old-wives fables (1 Tim. 4:7); wrangling about words (2 Tim. 2:14); men who will be able to teach others also (2 Tim. 2:2)
g.      Discipline oneself for godliness (1 Tim. 4:7)

III.             III.      Purposes/Goals – What are the intended results of pastoral teaching?
a.       Learning not to go beyond what is written in Scripture, i.e., the authority of Scripture and the limits of what we are accountable for (1 Cor. 4:6); accurate handling of God’s word (2 Tim. 2:15)
b.      Edification > Christlikeness > unity (Eph. 4:13-16; 1 Cor. 14:26)
                                      i.      Furthering the administration of God by faith (1 Tim. 1:4)
                                      ii.      Nourishing believers with words of faith and sound doctrine (1 Tim. 4:6)
                                     iii.      Develop theologically stable and mature believers (Eph. 4:13-15)
                                     iv.      believers firmly rooted, built up in him, established in the faith through instruction (Col. 2:7)
c.       Equipping for good works (edification of the body, apologetics, polemics, evangelism) (Eph. 4:12; 1 Thess. 4:12)
d.      Continuity of the faith
                                     i.      Guarding from errors of doctrine and practice (1 Tim. 1:3-4; 6:20
                                     ii.      Giving it to faithful men who will teach others (2 Tim. 2:2)
e.       Glory of God – (cf. Eph. 3:8-10; 1 Cor. 10:31)
f.       Producing disciple-makers (2 Tim. 2:2; Matt. 28:19-20)
g.      Love out of a pure heart, good conscience, sincere faith (1 Tim. 1:5)
h.      Ensuring salvation for oneself and one’s hearers (1 Tim. 4:16)
i.        To present our people holy, blameless, and unreprovable when Jesus comes (Col. 1:22)
j.        Discernment: helping God’s people identify the motives that drive unsound teaching (1 Tim. 6:4-5)
k.      Remind God’s people of the ways of the apostles (1 Cor. 4:17)
l.        To provide Jesus a pure virgin (2 Cor. 11:2)
m.  Obedience to the truth (Rom. 6:17; 2 Thess. 3:14; Phil. 2:12; Gal. 5:7; 2 Cor. 7:15; Rom. 16:19) 

IV.             IV.     Content – What does the pastor teach?
a.       Whole counsel of God (Acts 20:27); “all scripture” (2 Tim. 3:16-17); OT examples (1 Cor. 10:11)
                                      i.      Sound doctrine (1 Tim. 1:9; 4:6; Tit. 2:1)
                                      ii.      Sound words – of Jesus and which conform to godliness (1 Tim. 6:3; 2 Tim. 1:13)
                                      iii.      Words of faith (1 Tim. 4:6); teacher “in faith and truth” (1 Tim. 2:7)
b.      Hermeneutics (implied in 1 Tim. 1:8); how to derive principles from OT laws (1 Cor. 9:8-11)
c.       Theological content provides the basis for practical admonition (Pauline epistles passim)
                                      i.      Theological content: election, predestination, justification, sanctification, spirit-filling (Eph. 1:4-5; Rom. 3-5; 6-8; Eph. 5:18); second coming (1 Thess. 1:10; 4:17-18; 2 Thess. 1-2); God’s purpose for Israel (Rom. 9-11)
                                      ii.      Practical content: ½ of Paul’s epistles. Examples:
1.      discipline themselves for the purpose of godliness, that godliness is profitable for the present and future life, that they are to fix their hope on the living God who is the Savior of all men, especially of those who believe. (1 Tim. 4:7-10)
2.      How to rebuke believers, deal with widows (1 Tim. 5:1-16)
3.      How to remunerate teaching elders who do well (cf. Gal. 6:6; 1 Cor. 9:9, 11), deal with accusations against elders, and avoid hasty ordinations (1 Tim. 5:17-22);  appreciate those who give instructions (1 Thess. 5:12)
4.      How slaves should relate to their masters, especially if owned by a believer (1 Tim. 6:1-2)
5.      Address the rich to trust God, be generous, lay up treasure in heaven (1 Tim. 6:17-19)
6.      To engage in good deeds (Tit. 3:14)
7.      How to live so as to please God (1 Thess. 2:12; 4:1)
8.      How to lead a quiet life, attend to your own business, work with your hands (1 Thess. 4:11; 2 Thess. 3:10)
9.      Holiness of heart (1 Thess. 3:12-13), of life (1 Thess. 4:3-8), and the whole person (1 Thess. 5:23-24)
10.  Expect suffering (1 Thess. 3:4) and persecution (2 Tim. 3:12); view suffering as participating in Christ’s suffering (Phil. 3:11; Col. 1:24)
d.      What not to teach
                                      i.      strange doctrines (1 Tim. 1:3)
                                      ii.      myths and endless genealogies, which give rise to mere speculation (1 Tim. 1:4)
                                     iii.      what is contrary to sound teaching (1 Tim. 1:9)
                                     iv.      doctrines of demons, such as forbidding to marry and to eat meat (1 Tim. 4:1-4, 6)     
                                     v.      worldly fables fit only for old women (1 Tim. 4:7)
                                     vi.      worldly and empty chatter and the opposing arguments of what is falsely called "knowledge" (1 Tim. 6:20; 2 Tim. 2:16)
                                      vii.      commandments and teachings of men (Col. 2:22)
e.     How to respond to false teaching (Rom. 16:17)
f.       How to teach – not wrangling about words which does no good and leads to the destruction of the hearers (2 Tim. 2:14); pointing out doctrines of demons (1 Tim. 4:1-4, 6); identifying what is contrary to sound teaching (1 Tim. 1:9)

V.                V.        Methods – How does the pastor/elder teach?
a.       Settings – public (synagogues, Hall of Tyrannus; Act 19:8-9; 1 Tim. 4:13), private homes (Acts 20:20; cf. 1 Cor. 14:35), gathered believers (Acts 20)
b.      Instruments – letters (1 Tim. 3:14; 2 Thess. 3:14), personal messengers (1 Thess. 3; Timothy, Epaphroditus - Phil. 2:19-30)
c.       Frequency – weekly (Acts 13), daily (Acts 19:9), night and day (Acts 20:31)
d.      Scope – “the whole counsel of God” (Acts 20:27)
e.       Sequence – the order in which the information is covered; implied in 1 Thess. by what Paul had already told them (1 Thess. 4:6).
                                      i.      Reminding God’s people of what they have learned (2 Tim. 2:11-14; 1 Cor. 4:17)
f.       Focus/emphasis
                                      i.      language style & repetition; requires focused attention (1 Tim. 4:13, 16)
                                      ii.      Audience focus: teacher of the Gentiles (1 Tim. 2:7)
g.      Attitude/Approach – gentleness (1 Thess. 2:7), kindness (2 Tim. 2:24); patience (2 Tim. 2:24); appeals, exhorts (Tit. 1:9), commands (1 Tim. 1:3), reasons; reminders (2 Tim. 2:14); as a father would a child (1 Thess. 2:11); tenderly as a mother would her children (1 Thess. 2:7); admonishing (Col. 1:28)
h.      Avoiding flattery (1 Thess. 2:5); human eloquence or wisdom (1 Cor. 2:1, 4), intentional shaming (1 Cor. 4:14
i.        With Authority (Tit. 2:15; 1 Tim. 2:12), with the demonstration and power of the Spirit (1 Cor. 2:4; 1 Thess. 1:5)
j.        With all wisdom (Col. 1:28; 3:16)
k.      With praise (1 Cor. 11:2); with rebuke (1 Cor. 11:17)
l.        Modeling what is taught and directing them to imitate him (Acts 20:35; 1 Thess. 1:6; 1 Cor. 4:16-17; 11:1); modeling teaching for faithful men (2 Tim. 3:10; Tit. 2:7)
m.    Pointing people to the Scriptures (OT specifically) for examples of how to live godly lives (1 Cor. 10:11; Rom. 15:4)
n.      Audience – believers in general (Acts 13), male leaders specifically (Acts 20; 2 Tim. 2:2)
o.      Teach according to the grace given to teach (Rom. 12:6-7)
p.      Working hard (1 Tim. 5:17); diligently (2 Tim. 2:15)

VI.             VI.     Relationship of Teaching to other Pastoral Functions
a.       Distinction justified – preacher, apostle, teacher distinguished (2 Tim. 1:11; Acts 13:1)
b.      Teaching as a subset of preaching and apostleship (κήρυξ καὶ ἀπόστολος; 1 Tim. 2:7); preach the word … with instruction (2 Tim. 4:2)
c.       Title of the role is pastor and teacher (Eph. 4:11). Teaching figures prominently in the role.
d.      Teaching emphasized in Pastoral Epistles (*διδασκ* occurs 27x in Tim-Tit.;  2 imperatives to teach, 1 to preach)
                                     i.      1 Tim. 4:11 Παράγγελλε ταῦτα καὶ δίδασκε – command and teach these things
                                     ii.      1 Tim. 6:2 Ταῦτα δίδασκε καὶ παρακάλει – teach and exhort these things
                                     iii.      1 Tim. 5:17 – those who work in the word and teaching
e.       Paul exhorts Timothy to devote himself to reading [the Scriptures], preaching, and teaching, not one to the exclusion of the other (1 Tim. 4:13).
f.       Prophesying results in learning (1 Cor. 14:31), thus it is a form of teaching; “revelation, knowledge, prophecy, and teaching” distinguished (1 Cor. 14:6)


2 comments:

Edward Beaver said...

Well done and helpful. Enjoy seeing what the Lord is doing with your gifts. Chip off the old block! Eddie Beaver

Jeremiah Parker said...

Phoebe probably did not have a husband (Rom 16:1). But, as a deacon, I imagine that she was "able to teach."

We both recognize that the gift of prophecy is not limited to males, and that teaching is often a function (even if only incidentally) of prophecy. I also know women who God has gifted to teach the church. I imagine you do to. I suspect that Paul's objection to women teaching had to do with particular circumstances at the time.

I always appreciate your work. Thanks for sharing.